CSS3 Border Image – Custom Borders

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This is a way to create custom boxes around elements instead of using the native ones.

Take any image that contains a border and tell the browser how to slice it. Then comes the “magic” part - the border will adapt to the width and height of the element, whatever it may be.

Syntax

border-image:
  _image_source_
  _slice_size_
  _border_width_
  _slice_start_
  _repeat_

Image Source

This is the only required property, written as border-image-source: url(…).

Slice Sizes

Thanks to this value we can slice the source image so the browser knows where all four cut-outs for all four corners are. Plus the browser will know where the cut-outs for the horizontal and vertical sides are.

The value consists of one, two or four numbers. Two numbers represent the horizontal and vertical slice and four numbers represent the top, right, bottom and left slices. The value can be defined in pixels or as a percentage of the source image size. The default value is border-image-slice: 100%.

If the fill key word is used, the browser will apply the center part of the image to the element’s background.

Slice Sizes within border-image

Border Width

The border-image-width property defines the border width in pixels or as a percentage. It is very similar to border-width.

If the auto value is applied, the width is calculated from the slice size.

Start of the Slice

The value given for the border-image-outset property defines how far the image border extends past the element. It is calculated as if the element had a box-sizing: border-box property.

Repeating

How will the browser work with the vertical and horizontal sides of the image border if the border has a different size than the source image? We can set this by using the border-image-repeat property. There are four available values:

  • stretch – the image will stretch to fill the border
  • repeat – the image will repeat
  • round – if the area is not filled in by an integer number of repetitions, each repetition will stretch to fill the area
  • space – if the area is not filled in by an integer number of repetitions, the empty area is evenly distributed among all repetitions (space is added to each repetition)

Remember that it is possible to set various values for the horizontal and vertical parts of the border. See an example:

border-image-repeat: stretch repeat;

Useful Tips

border-image.com - a very nice generator which will make your life easier, especially when looking for size of the slices.

  • Attention! According to the latest specification, the border-image property will not work if you forget to declare border-style and border-width properties.

Browser Support

IE11+. Older browsers can be served by a defined alternative and by feature detection using Modernizr: .no-borderimage .box { … }. Or simply by using a border-color fallback.

A Simple Example with a Color Gradient

CSS gradients count as images, therefore you can use a color gradient as a border.

But remember that you always have to define a native image border - first for handling sizes and second, for creating a fallback for browsers not supporting border-image. So for the sake of this example, let’s create a 20 pixel border around an element:

border: 20px solid green;

And now, we will tell the browser that instead of a green color, we we will use a color gradient:

border-image-source:
  linear-gradient(lightgreen, darkgreen);

To our surprise, the browser will render the gradient in the corners of the border only. The reason for that is the slice default value: border-image-slice: 100%. It means the image will be used just in the four corners. Therefore, we will set it so it corresponds with the width of our border:

border-image-slice: 20;

And that’s all there is to it. You can try an example at cdpn.io/e/zdyIJ.

An Example with a Bitmap Image as a Background

First, let’s define the border sizes and a fallback for older browsers:

border-color: green;
border-style: solid;
border-width: 21px 23px;

Now add a background image:

border-image-source: url(border-image-source.png);

Then define the slices. In this source image, the horizontal border is 21 pixels high and the vertical one is 23 pixels high.

border-image-slice: 21 23;

Last, it is necessary to tell the browser that side slices need to be repeated if the size of the element increases:

border-image-repeat: repeat;

Now, let’s try a shorthand notation of the last three declarations:

border-image:
  url(border-image-source.png) 21 23 repeat;

Done. You can view an example at cdpn.io/e/DLkjm.




Content

Introduction

Introduction

On today’s frontend UI development

UI development transformations

Tools, technologies and workflows

Fallback strategies

CSS3 reference guide

Introduction

Text properties

Background properties

Border properties

Box properties

Media Queries

CSS transforms

CSS animations

CSS3 Layout

Another CSS3 Properties

Non-standard properties

End

End

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